Assessing behaviour, not personality

[:en]

Profiles for People (PfP) is a suite of twelve organisational behaviour surveys created in 1979 as a multipurpose organisation development tool. Although there are many formal and informal OD diagnostic tools in use, there appears to be no parallel to PfP.

The survey suite differs from personality–based instruments in several ways, including:

  • Designed specifically for organisational and personal improvement.
  • No underlying theories of personality.
  • Does not discriminate on the basis of gender or ethnicity.
  • Reports observable behaviours as indicated by actions, speech and expressions.
  • Derived from the common body of knowledge and from practical behavioural models.
  • No divisive or limiting labelling, eg, ‘You are an introvert/extravert (forever)’.
  • Individual and collective behaviours are able to change.

 

History

The PfP surveys were conceived, designed and constructed in 1979–81 by father and son, Michael F Dakin and Peter G Dakin, and used actively in consultancy.

The initiative was sparked by Michael Dakin’s dissatisfaction with personality–based assessments as a platform for organisation improvement. He recognised that personal traits do not translate directly to specific, predictable and variable behaviour.

A full review of the core source material led to the drafting and testing of the first surveys. The prototypes met the expectations of test clients and respondents, and of the authors.

 

Sources and Influences

Main Writer   Key Works Referenced
Sun Tsu C 544–496 BCE The Art of War

Sun Tzu (544 – 496 BCE) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer and philosopher who lived in ancient China. To this day, The Art of War continues to influence many competitive endeavours in the world of culture, politics, business and sports, as well as modern warfare.

Henri Fayol 1841–1925 Functions & Principles of Management

Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925) was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed general theory of business administration – Fayolism. He is widely acknowledged as a founder of modern management methods.

Kurt Lewin 1890–1947 Group Dynamics

Kurt Lewin (1890 – 1947) is often recognised as the “founder of social psychology” and was one of the first to study group dynamics and organisational development.

Rensis Likert 1903–1981 Management Systems I to IV

Rensis Likert (1903 – 1981) is primarily known for developing the 5-point Likert scale, a psychometric scale that allows people to respond to questions of interest, in order to measure people’s attitudes. Likert founded the theory of participative management, which was used to engage employees in the workplace and ultimately allow them to enjoy their job more.

Frederic Kuder 1903–2000 Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
Kuder is one of the developers of the Kuder–Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20, first published in 1937), a measure of internal consistency reliability for measures with dichotomous choices. 
A Maslow 1908–1970 Motivation and Personality
Maslow (1908 – 1970) is best known for creating Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a theory of wellbeing predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualisation. Maslow stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a “bag of symptoms.”
Eric Berne 1910–1970 Transactional Analysis, Games People Play
Eric Berne (1910 – 1970) was a prolific thinker on behavour, who created the theory of transactional analysis as a way of explaining human behaviour.
Louis A Allen 1917–2010 Management & Organization
Allen was an American management consultant, and was the first to fully classify human work into categories, a typology which facilities diagnosis and correction of organisational problems. 
Robert F Mager 1923– Analysing Performance Problems: Or, You…
Robert Mager is an American psychologist and author, known for developing a framework for preparing learning objectives, and criterion referenced instruction (CRI), as well as addressing areas of goal orientation, student evaluation, student motivation, classroom environment, educational change, performance technology, and instructional design.
W French & C Bell 1923–, 1934–2009 Organisation Development

Wendell French, PhD Harvard University, is a retired professor of management and organisation, specialising in organisational development, human resource management, team building, inter-group team building, and human resource policies.

Cecil H. Bell (1935 – 2009) was a master in General Psychology who taught for 30 years at the University of Washington Graduate School of Business, Department of Management and Organisation. 
D Jongeward 1925– Born to Win
Dr. Dorothy Jongeward is an internationally prominent management consultant who has pioneered the field of productivity through “people skills.” Her creative career is cited in many references, including The World’s Who’s Who of Women. In 1990, Dr. Jongeward was selected as one of six alumni of Washington State University “who have made significant contributions to history and culture in this century.”
Wayne Dyer 1940–2015 Your Erroneous Zones
Wayne Dyer (1940 – 2015) was an American self-help author and a motivational speaker whose book, Your Erroneous Zones (1976), is one of the best-selling books of all time, with an estimated 35 million copies sold to date.
NATO 1948– Modern Principles of Warfare

 

Twelve behavioural groups identified from source materials

Twelve groups of behaviours affecting task completion, social processes and time usage in organisations were identified:

1. Occupational interests 5.  Operating style 9.   Leadership
2.  Time usage 6.  Operating process 10.  Building teams
3.  Motivation and drives 7.  Maintaining poise 11.  Team work
4.  Thinking and transacting 8.  Roles and influence 12.  Coaching

 

1. Occupational interests

PfP’s Activity Interests survey is modelled on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS), which has ten specific occupational interests. PfP recognises nine generalised interest factors.

Comparison of PfP with KOIS
KOIS factors PfP factors Comment
  • Scientific
  • Persuasive
  • Social Service
  • Mechanical
  • Artistic
  • Clerical
  • Literary
  • Computational
  • Outdoor
  • Musical
  • Problem solving
  • Negotiating
  • Social
  • Practical
  • Aesthetic
  • Administrative
  • Verbal
  • Numerical
  • Managerial
The KOIS approach indicates a respondent’s level of interest in a specific type or class of occupation. KOIS assessments appear to slot people into a narrowly defined vocational field. PfP’s Activity Interests survey assesses interest in generalised activities. The surveys paired choices allow or require each respondent to visualise the activities in a context that makes sense to them.In reality, people’s roles and functions require a mixture of several factors.

 

2. Time usage

PfP’s Time Actions assessment samples the ways that people prefer to spend their time. Six of the twelve factors represent time management practices and techniques. The other six factors represent the use of time to satisfy personal wants or needs.

Managing time and people
Managing time  Managing people  Comment
  • Allocate time
  • Manage time
  • Task completion
  • Process Time
  • Pace
  • Value
  • Activity Time
  • Social Time
  • Habitual Time
  • Wasted Time
  • Withdrawal
  • Interaction
The ’time management’ factors were derived from a range of source materials. The factors are entirely task-oriented.The ‘people’ factors have been adapted from Transactional Analysis. They are central to understanding social interaction.

 

3. Motivation and drives

PfP’s Activation profile samples three perceived external rewards and five internal drives that relate to role performance and personal satisfaction.

These factors are placed in the context of the past, the present or the future, with self-perception of progress toward personal goals.

Desire for reward and recognition
Inner needs External influences Comment
  • As a Person
  • As a Producer
  • As a Pleaser
  • As a Disturber
  • Material Reward
  • Career Reward
  • Social Reward
  • Pressure of Time
The inner needs for recognition were derived from Transactional Analysis.The external influences were adapted from common organisational practices.

 

4. Thinking and transacting

PfP’s Transactions assessment uses six of its twelve factors to sample and display the processes we follow to reach conclusions (ranging from open-ended reasoning to blind faith). These factors are all alternatives, any one of which might be used alone or combined with others.

A further five factors survey the likely structure and tone of transactions when communicating with other people. These five are all concurrent and interlace with one another during interpersonal transactions.

Thinking things through and communicating with others.
Thinking Transacting Comment
  • Reasoning
  • Logic
  • Intuition
  • Assertion
  • Fate
  • Magic
  • Objective
  • Judgemental
  • Supportive
  • Adaptive
  • Natural
 

 

5. Operating style

PfP adapts NATO’s Modern Principles of Warfare to define personal operating styles for the Action Style assessment. Behaviour can be influenced greatly by the environment in which people perform. Personal action styles reflect that, and change with the environment.

How people act to get what they want.
Task-oriented Process-oriented Comment
  • Set priorities
  • Pursue objectives
  • Concentrate force
  • Act assertively
  • Operate securely
  • Collaborate
  • Economise effort
  • Use surprise
  • Manage morale
  • Be flexible
 

 

6. Maintaining poise

PfP’s Poise profile reports on perceived sources of pressure and tension, the extent to which people believe they tolerate these, and their response when they experience stress.

Four factors explore activities as causes of pressure and tension, the way they handle those, the environment and the impact of others.

Another four factors deal with ambiguity, deprival, conflict and frustration as sources of stress.

A third set of four factors reports tendency to flee from the situation, to go along with it passively, to stand ground, or to seek ways to come bring issues under control.

Coping with pressures and tensions
Sources (people and activities) Other sources Responses Comment
  • Self
  • Others
  • Environs
  • Activities
  • Conflict
  • Deprival
  • Ambiguity
  • Frustration
  • Flee
  • Cope
  • Resist
  • Conform
 

 

7. Roles and influence

PfP’s Team Roles assessments defines twelve roles, each critical to the dynamics of a given group. Roles tend to be oriented toward task achievement or group processes, but an overall balance is desirable between both of these for a team to function well.

A specific group may be located at the one place at the one time or dispersed over any area, and interactive either occasionally or continuously. In a group, any one person may fulfil any three or four roles at the same time.

The blend and balance of these roles influences their effectiveness, as does playing too many or too few roles.

The interpersonal dynamics of people in teams
Task roles Process roles Comment
  • Initiator
  • Coordinator
  • Ideator
  • Censor
  • Monitor
  • Implementer
  • Follower
  • Liaisor
  • Activator
  • Supporter
  • Mediator
  • Administrator
 

 

PfP’s Guiding principles

What people actually do, not their disposition

PfP is designed to identify individual and collective behaviours, not theoretical personality traits.

Full–circle feedback

PfP is intended for use in a feedback loop to facilitate understanding of each person’s patterns of behaviour.

Voluntary participation

Every person who responds to a PfP survey does so voluntarily.

Confidentiality

Personal results are confidential between the respondent and the administrator and may not disclosed, ethically, without willing permission.

Not for type–casting

The results of the assessment shall not be used to ‘label, evaluate, or limit any respondent in any way’.

Adequate feedback

People may expect to have detailed feedback on their surveys by a trained administrator, and an opportunity to discuss their personal reports. This may be done in person or by electronic means.

Survey format and administration

  • All twelve surveys have twelve behavioural factors, specific to a survey’s purpose.
  • Each survey has 78 paired statements, including 12 consistency checks.
  • Respondents choose one preferred option: if unable to, they may skip that pair.
  • Surveys may be used to assess individual or group behaviours
  • Questionnaires are available in four formats
    1. Self
    2. Another person
    3. A group the respondent belongs to
    4. A different group

 

[:fr]

Profiles for People (PfP- Profils pour les Gens) est une suite de douze enquêtes sur le comportement organisationnel créées en 1979 en tant qu’outil de développement organisationnel polyvalent. Bien que de nombreux outils de diagnostic OD officiels et informels soient utilisés, il ne semble pas exister de parallèle avec le PPP.

La série de sondages diffère des instruments basés sur la personnalité de plusieurs manières, notamment:

 

  • Conçu spécifiquement pour l’amélioration organisationnelle et personnelle.
  • Aucune théorie sous-jacente de la personnalité.
  • Ne fait pas de discrimination sur la base du genre ou de l’origine ethnique.
  • Signale les comportements observables tels qu’indiqués par les actions, les paroles et les expressions.
  • Dérivé du corpus commun de connaissances et de modèles comportementaux pratiques.
  • Aucun libellé limitant ou limitant, par exemple, «Vous êtes un introverti / extraverti (pour toujours)».
  • Les comportements individuels et collectifs peuvent changer.

 

 

L’histoire

Les enquêtes PfP ont été conçues et construites en 1979-1981 par les père et fils, Michael F Dakin et Peter G Dakin, et ont été utilisées activement dans le conseil.

L’insatisfaction de Michael Dakin à l’égard des évaluations basées sur la personnalité servant de plate-forme d’amélioration de l’organisation a été à l’origine de cette initiative. Il a reconnu que les traits personnels ne se traduisaient pas directement par un comportement spécifique, prévisible et variable.

Un examen complet des sources principales a conduit à la rédaction et à la mise à l’essai des premières enquêtes. Les prototypes ont répondu aux attentes des clients testés, des répondants et des auteurs.

 

 

Sources et influences

 

Ecrivain Principal   Ouvrages principaux référencés
Sun Tsu C 544–496 BCE

The Art of War

Sun Tzu (544 – 496 AEC) était un général, stratège militaire, écrivain et philosophe qui vivait dans la Chine ancienne. À ce jour, l’Art de la Guerre continue d’influencer de nombreuses entreprises concurrentielles dans le monde de la culture, de la politique, des affaires et du sport, ainsi que dans la guerre moderne.

Henri Fayol 1841–1925

Functions & Principles of Management

Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925) était un ingénieur des mines français, dirigeant de mines, auteur et directeur des mines, qui développa la théorie générale de l’administration des entreprises – le fayolisme. Il est largement reconnu en tant que fondateur des méthodes de gestion modernes.

Kurt Lewin 1890–1947

Group Dynamics

Kurt Lewin (1890 – 1947) est souvent reconnu comme le “fondateur de la psychologie sociale” et a été l’un des premiers à étudier la dynamique de groupe et le développement organisationnel.

Rensis Likert 1903–1981

Management Systems I to IV

Rensis Likert (1903 – 1981) est principalement connue pour avoir développé l’échelle à 5 points de Likert, une échelle psychométrique qui permet aux gens de répondre aux questions qui les intéressent afin de mesurer leurs attitudes. Likert a fondé la théorie de la gestion participative, qui était utilisée pour engager les employés sur le lieu de travail et leur permettre finalement de profiter davantage de leur travail.

Frederic Kuder 1903–2000 Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
Kuder est l’un des concepteurs de la Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20, publiée pour la première fois en 1937), une mesure de la fiabilité de la cohérence interne pour les mesures à choix dichotomiques.
A Maslow 1908–1970 Motivation and Personality
Maslow (1908 – 1970) est surtout connu pour avoir créé la hiérarchie des besoins de Maslow, une théorie du bien-être fondée sur la satisfaction prioritaire des besoins humains innés, aboutissant à la réalisation de soi. Maslow a souligné l’importance de mettre l’accent sur les qualités positives chez les personnes, plutôt que de les traiter comme un “paquet de symptômes”.
Eric Berne 1910–1970 Transactional Analysis, Games People Play
Eric Berne (1910 – 1970) était un penseur prolifique sur le comportement, qui a créé la théorie de l’analyse transactionnelle comme moyen d’expliquer le comportement humain.
Louis A Allen 1917–2010 Management & Organization
Allen était un consultant en management américain et fut le premier à classer intégralement le travail humain en catégories, une typologie facilitant le diagnostic et la correction des problèmes organisationnels.
Robert F Mager 1923– Analysing Performance Problems: Or, You…
Robert Mager est un psychologue et auteur américain, connu pour avoir développé un cadre de travail pour la préparation d’objectifs d’apprentissage et un enseignement basé sur des critères (CRI), ainsi que pour aborder les domaines suivants: orientation des objectifs, évaluation des étudiants, motivation des étudiants, environnement de la salle de classe, changement dans l’enseignement, technologie de la performance. et la conception pédagogique.
W French & C Bell 1923–, 1934–2009

Organisation Development

Wendell French, PhD de l’Université de Harvard, est un professeur à la retraite en gestion et en organisation, spécialisé dans le développement organisationnel, la gestion des ressources humaines, la constitution d’équipes, la constitution d’équipes entre groupes et les politiques de ressources humaines.

Cecil H. Bell (1935 – 2009) était un maître en psychologie générale qui a enseigné pendant 30 ans à la Graduate School of Business de l’Université de Washington, au département de gestion et d’organisation.

D Jongeward 1925– Born to Win
Dr. Dorothy Jongeward est une consultante en management de renommée internationale qui a innové dans le domaine de la productivité grâce à ses «compétences interpersonnelles». Sa carrière créative est citée dans de nombreuses références, y compris The World’s Who of Women. En 1990, M. Jongeward a été choisi comme l’un des six anciens étudiants de l’Université de l’État de Washington «qui ont apporté une contribution significative à l’histoire et à la culture au cours de ce siècle».
Wayne Dyer 1940–2015 Your Erroneous Zones
Wayne Dyer (1940 – 2015) était un auteur américain qui s’entraide et un conférencier motivateur. Son livre, Your Erroneous Zones (1976), est l’un des ouvrages les plus vendus de tous les temps, avec environ 35 millions d’exemplaires vendus à ce jour.
NATO 1948– Modern Principles of Warfare

 

 

Douze groupes de comportement identifiés

Douze groupes de comportements ayant une incidence sur l’achèvement de la tâche, les processus sociaux et l’utilisation du temps dans les organisations ont été identifiés:

 

1. Intérêts professionnels 5. Style de fonctionnement 9.  Direction
2. Utilisation du temps 6. Processus de fonctionnement 10. Construction d’équipes
3. Motivation et pulsions 7. Maintenir l’équilibre 11. Travail en équipe
4. Pensée et transaction 8. Rôles et influence 12. Encadrement

 

 

1. Intérêts professionnels

 

PfP’s Activity Interests survey is modelled on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS), which has ten specific occupational interests. PfP recognises nine generalised interest factors.

 

Comparison of PfP with KOIS
KOIS factors PfP factors Comment
  • Scientific
  • Persuasive
  • Social Service
  • Mechanical
  • Artistic
  • Clerical
  • Literary
  • Computational
  • Outdoor
  • Musical
  • Problem solving
  • Negotiating
  • Social
  • Practical
  • Aesthetic
  • Administrative
  • Verbal
  • Numerical
  • Managerial
The KOIS approach indicates a respondent’s level of interest in a specific type or class of occupation. KOIS assessments appear to slot people into a narrowly defined vocational field. PfP’s Activity Interests survey assesses interest in generalised activities. The surveys paired choices allow or require each respondent to visualise the activities in a context that makes sense to them.In reality, people’s roles and functions require a mixture of several factors.

 

 

2. Time usage

PfP’s Time Actions assessment samples the ways that people prefer to spend their time. Six of the twelve factors represent time management practices and techniques. The other six factors represent the use of time to satisfy personal wants or needs.

 

Managing time and people
Managing time  Managing people  Comment
  • Allocate time
  • Manage time
  • Task completion
  • Process Time
  • Pace
  • Value
  • Activity Time
  • Social Time
  • Habitual Time
  • Wasted Time
  • Withdrawal
  • Interaction
The ’time management’ factors were derived from a range of source materials. The factors are entirely task-oriented.The ‘people’ factors have been adapted from Transactional Analysis. They are central to understanding social interaction.

 

 

3. Motivation and drives

PfP’s Activation profile samples three perceived external rewards and five internal drives that relate to role performance and personal satisfaction.

These factors are placed in the context of the past, the present or the future, with self-perception of progress toward personal goals.

 

Desire for reward and recognition
Inner needs External influences Comment
  • As a Person
  • As a Producer
  • As a Pleaser
  • As a Disturber
  • Material Reward
  • Career Reward
  • Social Reward
  • Pressure of Time
The inner needs for recognition were derived from Transactional Analysis.The external influences were adapted from common organisational practices.

 

 

4. Thinking and transacting

PfP’s Transactions assessment uses six of its twelve factors to sample and display the processes we follow to reach conclusions (ranging from open-ended reasoning to blind faith). These factors are all alternatives, any one of which might be used alone or combined with others.

A further five factors survey the likely structure and tone of transactions when communicating with other people. These five are all concurrent and interlace with one another during interpersonal transactions.

 

Thinking things through and communicating with others.
Thinking Transacting Comment
  • Reasoning
  • Logic
  • Intuition
  • Assertion
  • Fate
  • Magic
  • Objective
  • Judgemental
  • Supportive
  • Adaptive
  • Natural
 

 

 

5. Operating style

 

PfP adapts NATO’s Modern Principles of Warfare to define personal operating styles for the Action Style assessment. Behaviour can be influenced greatly by the environment in which people perform. Personal action styles reflect that, and change with the environment.

 

How people act to get what they want.
Task-oriented Process-oriented Comment
  • Set priorities
  • Pursue objectives
  • Concentrate force
  • Act assertively
  • Operate securely
  • Collaborate
  • Economise effort
  • Use surprise
  • Manage morale
  • Be flexible
 

 

 

6. Maintaining poise

PfP’s Poise profile reports on perceived sources of pressure and tension, the extent to which people believe they tolerate these, and their response when they experience stress.

Four factors explore activities as causes of pressure and tension, the way they handle those, the environment and the impact of others.

Another four factors deal with ambiguity, deprival, conflict and frustration as sources of stress.

A third set of four factors reports tendency to flee from the situation, to go along with it passively, to stand ground, or to seek ways to come bring issues under control.

 

Coping with pressures and tensions
Sources (people and activities) Other sources Responses Comment
  • Self
  • Others
  • Environs
  • Activities
  • Conflict
  • Deprival
  • Ambiguity
  • Frustration
  • Flee
  • Cope
  • Resist
  • Conform
 

 

 

7. Roles and influence

PfP’s Team Roles assessments defines twelve roles, each critical to the dynamics of a given group. Roles tend to be oriented toward task achievement or group processes, but an overall balance is desirable between both of these for a team to function well.

A specific group may be located at the one place at the one time or dispersed over any area, and interactive either occasionally or continuously. In a group, any one person may fulfil any three or four roles at the same time.

The blend and balance of these roles influences their effectiveness, as does playing too many or too few roles.

 

The interpersonal dynamics of people in teams
Task roles Process roles Comment
  • Initiator
  • Coordinator
  • Ideator
  • Censor
  • Monitor
  • Implementer
  • Follower
  • Liaisor
  • Activator
  • Supporter
  • Mediator
  • Administrator
 

 

 

 

 

PfP’s Guiding principles

 

What people actually do, not their disposition

PfP is designed to identify individual and collective behaviours, not theoretical personality traits.

 

Full–circle feedback

PfP is intended for use in a feedback loop to facilitate understanding of each person’s patterns of behaviour.

 

Voluntary participation

Every person who responds to a PfP survey does so voluntarily.

 

Confidentiality

Personal results are confidential between the respondent and the administrator and may not disclosed, ethically, without willing permission.

 

Not for type–casting

The results of the assessment shall not be used to ‘label, evaluate, or limit any respondent in any way’.

 

Adequate feedback

 

People may expect to have detailed feedback on their surveys by a trained administrator, and an opportunity to discuss their personal reports. This may be done in person or by electronic means.

 

Survey format and administration

 

  • All twelve surveys have twelve behavioural factors, specific to a survey’s purpose.
  • Each survey has 78 paired statements, including 12 consistency checks.
  • Respondents choose one preferred option: if unable to, they may skip that pair.
  • Surveys may be used to assess individual or group behaviours
  • Questionnaires are available in four formats
    1. Self
    2. Another person
    3. A group the respondent belongs to
    4. A different group


 

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